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Basic anatomy: the vagina

  • The female genital tract includes the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, Fallopian tubes and ovaries.
  • The vulva is the area surrounding the openings of the vagina and urethra. It includes the vulval lips and clitoris.
  • The outer vaginal lips are usually fleshy and covered with hair and skin. If you spread the outer lips apart, you will see the inner lips. Vaginal lips come in all shapes and sizes.
  • If you feel forwards from the opening of the vagina, you will feel the clitoris just before the inner lips join together. Most of the time the clitoris is soft and hidden under the hood but, during sexual arousal, it swells with blood and sticks out.
  • The vagina is a muscular tube, about 7–9 cm long, that runs from the vulva to the cervix. It is very, very stretchy.
  • The cervix, which is sometimes called the neck of the womb, is quite firm and lies at the bottom of the uterus. The cervix has a hole in the middle to allow menstrual blood to pass out from the uterus into the vagina. If you put two fingers into the vagina and push upwards, you will be able to feel the cervix. It feels quite large and round, and has a firm consistency. During labour, it softens and then opens to allow the baby to be born.
  • The uterus is a muscular organ, usually about the size of a pear, that sits in the pelvis. It is here that the fetus develops during pregnancy. The lining of the uterus is called the endometrium. This thickens during the menstrual cycle in preparation for a fertilized egg, and is shed during menstruation if the egg is not fertilized.
  • The two ovaries sit on either side of the uterus. As well as producing eggs, they produce the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone until the menopause occurs.
  • The Fallopian tubes connect the uterus to the ovaries. When an egg is released from one of the ovaries it is collected by the Fallopian tube. Once in the tube, it may be fertilized by a sperm that has swum up from the vagina through the cervix and uterus.

    Basic anatomy of the female reproductive system
Image ©

Vaginal or vulval problems

For information on vaginal and vulval problems, see our pages on itching, pain, discharge, fishy smell, dry vagina, tight vagina, vulval colour and vaginal lips. Most vaginal and vulval problems can be dealt with easily, and if you have an infection it needs to be dealt with promptly. Doctors are used to examining the genital area; it is just like any other part of the body to them, so talk to your doctor, and tackle it, move on!

For more gynaecological pictures, visit It is free to sign up and you will have access to more than 250 high-quality images that you can print or download. Take one with you to your next doctor’s appointment to help you explain your problems.

Next month we will be covering breasts and nipples. What would you like to see covered in January’s update? Send your suggestions to We look forward to hearing from you.

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Last updated: Monday, November 2nd 2015


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Comments on this article

Posted by Micheas S.T. Serafica on 05/10/2016 at 11:10

Thank you for the wonderful information you provided in these articles. It surely help me coup with the problems on hand. More power to you.


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